By P. Bernier
This edited paintings includes 8 wide, review-type contributions by way of prime scientists within the box of artificial metals. The authors have been invited by means of the organisers of the foreign convention on technological know-how and expertise of man-made Metals '98 (ICSM'98) to check the growth of analysis long ago twenty years in a unifying and pedagogical demeanour. the current paintings highlights the state of the art of the sector and assesses the clients for destiny examine.
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Extra info for Advances in Synthetic Metals: Twenty years of progress in science and technology
Poly(3-alkyl)thiophene (PAT) used the nickel-mediated Kumada reaction of 2,5-diiodo-3-alkylthiophene 98 (scheme 23a, X =I) . Advantages of this synthetic path are the exclusively formed 2,5-linkages, as proved by 1H NMR, and the large quantities available; the disadvantage is the regioirregular connection of the thiophene units (see below). PATs can also be prepared by nickel-catalyzed Yamamoto coupling of the intermediate Grignard species formed by the reaction of 2,5-dibromo-3-alkylthiophene 98 with magnesium (scheme 23a, X=Br) .
Its synthesis comprises a smooth carbon-carbon bond formation by a carbanion-carbocation coupling followed by thioalcohol elimination (scheme 19a). This process is readily amenable to the synthesis of the related oligomers and polymers 87 (scheme 19b) . From the structural point of view, PPV can be regarded as a hybrid structure of poly(para-phenylene) and polyacetylene, whereby the formal combination of PPP and acetylene leads to another important structure, the poly(paraphenyleneethynylene) (PPE).
E 0 92 93 chemical Aromat. -2H* -2 H § -e e 20 Scheme 21 Electrochemical synthesis of polythiophene (PT). transistors. Nickel-catalyzed polycondensation-dehalogenation of 2,5-dihalogenothiophene 96 and 97 provides another route to polythiophene (see scheme 22) . The polymers obained by this method are often referred to as "high quality PTs" because of their high purity and good physical properties, but due to the lack of solubilizing groups these polymers are insoluble and therefore difficult to process.