By Zygmunt Frajzyngier
Wandala is a hitherto undescribed significant Chadic language spoken in Northern Cameroon and Northeastern Nigeria. The Grammar of Wandala describes, in a non-aprioristic method, phonology, morphology, syntax, and all sensible domain names grammaticalized within the language. The grammatical constitution of Wandala is kind of diversified from the constitution of different Chadic languages defined to this point in either the formal potential and the features which were grammaticalized. The grammar presents proofs for the postulated hypotheses relating kinds and features. The grammar is written in a mode available to linguists operating inside varied theoretical frameworks.
The phonology is characterised by means of a wealthy consonantal method, a 3 vowel procedure, and a tone approach. The language has plentiful vowel insertion principles and a vowel concord approach. Vowel deletion marks phrase-internal place, and vowel-insertion marks phrase-final place. the 2 principles permit the parsing of the clause into elements. The language has 3 sorts of reduplication of verbs, of which code aspectual and modal differences. The destructive paradigms of verbs fluctuate from affirmative paradigms within the coding of subject.
The pronominal affixes and wide procedure of verbal extensions code the grammatical and semantic relatives in the clause. Wandala has strange clausal constitution, in that during a pragmatically impartial verbal clause, there's just one nominal argument, both the topic or the thing. those arguments can stick with a number of ingredients. The grammatical position of that argument is coded via inflectional markers at the verb and so much curiously, on no matter what lexical or grammatical morpheme precedes the constituent. The markers of grammatical kin additional to verbs are assorted for various periods of verbs.
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Additional resources for A Grammar of Wandala
Similarly the plural of the verb ə́bɮyà ‘throw’ is váɮyà ‘throw many things’. mb mbɗà ‘fall’. The evidence that the sequence mb represents a single segment is provided by the imperative form for the singular addressee of the simple verb, which is derived through gemination of the first consonant of the verb. ’, the sequence mb is geminated, with an epenthetic vowel inserted after the first instantiation of mb. Alveolars t mtù ‘or’, t ‘target extension’. t becomes voiced when preceded by a vowel and followed by a sonorant: (1a) mbà-t-mbà kàrà lit-T-lit:PB fire ‘the fire lit up’ → [mbàdmbà kàrà] d d ‘go’, də̀gzà ‘flow (as a liquid) and make noise at the same time’.
No such phenomenon has been recorded, and attempts to produce such a form were roundly rejected by speakers: (12) tà já-mmè 3PL unite-COL ‘they met (on the road)’ *tà jàh-ə́-mmè 3PL unite-EP COL ‘they met (on the road)’ Nasals n án ‘associative preposition’. m m ‘spatial specifier ‘IN’, mákè ‘week’. ɲ ɲàmlàkè ‘dirty, ɲáŋà ‘put in order’. The consonant ɲ is produced without a palatal glide. After the initial contact of the tongue with the palatal region, the tongue remains at the bottom of the mouth.
The imperative is coded through gemination of the initial consonant. This gemination triggers a number of phonological changes, including the insertion of epenthetic vowels and the raising of the tone on the first syllable of the verb. The obligative mood is coded through the high tone subject pronoun followed by the imperative form of the verb. 17 Negation Negation of verbal clauses is coded through the obligatory negative morpheme k (kà in phrase-final position) placed after the verb and before the nominal subject or object.