A Comparative Grammar of the Sanscrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, by Franz Bopp, H.H. Wilson, Edward B. Eastwick

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By Franz Bopp, H.H. Wilson, Edward B. Eastwick

A founding textual content of comparative philology, Franz Bopp's Vergleichende Grammatik was once initially released in components, starting in 1833, and by way of the 1870s had seemed in 3 versions in German, in addition to in English and French translations. Bopp (1791-1867), Professor of Sanskrit and comparative grammar at Berlin, got down to turn out the relationships among Indo-European languages via specified description of the grammatical positive factors of Sanskrit in comparison to these of Zend (Avestan), Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic and German. This translation (1845-50) of Bopp's first version gave English-speaking students entry to his very important findings. Translated by means of Edward Backhouse Eastwick (1814-1883), the multi-lingual diplomat and pupil, and edited via Horace Hayman Wilson (1786-1860), Professor of Sanskrit at Oxford, this paintings testifies either to Bopp's magisterial examine and to Eastwick's striking ability in translation. This quantity covers pronouns and verbs.

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Extra resources for A Comparative Grammar of the Sanscrit, Zend, Greek, Latin, Lithuanian, Gothic, German, and Sclavonic Languages, Volume 2

Example text

The feminine gibai, from the theme gibo, is as easily de- * Tlie Sanscrit li/c-n-a has, according to §. , a euphonic n inserted, and the a of the base changed into r by the blending of an i. t The latter actually takes place in hrammc-h. Itvaryammc-li. PRONOUNS. 501 rivable, in regard to form, from the dative fsogfa jihvdy-di, as from the instrumental f ^ q i jihvay-d. In both ways the inflexion has been lost, and the semivowel preceding it changed to a vowel. But if we are to believe that a genuine dative character is retained in German, we should find it in the declension of the pronouns, inasmuch as, for instance, the feminine form zai, in thi-zai, is directly derivable from the Sanscrit sydi, from smy-di, by merely dropping the semivowel; so that thizai and 'jr^ tasydi stand historically near to one another, as we have represented in §.

DUAL. MASCULINE. Sanscrit. Zend. Greek. Lith. N. Ac. Ab. tdbhydm, {taHbya), D. TO7V? L. tayos, (tayd),5 G. TOIV, G. tu, Old, Sclav. ta. D. 6 NEUTER. Ac, te, 7 {te), ra, .... tye,8 The rest like the Masculine. FEMININE. Ac. U? Ab. L. (fe), (tabya), .... , tie, D. rcav, torn,3 G. rouv, G. 4 toyu. 1 2 Veda form, see §. 208. § . 221. 215. * §. , where, however, the reason for the ye, instead of the to be anticipated o, was incorrectly assigned. The truth is, obyema is founded on the Sanscrit base -g^rq ubhaya, nom.

PRONOUNS. "*" 360. We turn to a pronominal base consisting of a simple vowel, viz. e. *F^ it-tham, " so," at the bottom of which lies the obsolete neuter it as the theme, + and which occurs in the Vedas also, as an enclitic particle. I regard this ^ it as the last portion of ^fc^ cMt " if " (from cha + it), and ^w net, " if not " (from na + it), which latter is in Zend i^Jw ndit(§. ), and does not merely mean " not "; since, like our German nicht, it has been forgotten that its initial element alone is negative, while its latter portion signifies something real—in Zend " this," and in German " thing," (ni-cht, from ni-wiht, Gothic ni-vaihts).

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